#clinicalpearls: CHF Pleural Effusions

Common features of pleural effusions associated with congestive heart failure:

  • Bilateral effusion
  • If unilateral, more commonly on the right
  • Associated with cardiomegaly
  • Transudative fluid
  • Serous (not bloody)
  • pH > 7.4
  • Pleural fluid glucose close to serum level